The Three Branches of Gallentean Government
The Gallente Federation was founded a little over 300 years ago. At that time the Federation consisted of 17 sectors or districts and four races. A district is a group of solar systems (of various sizes). The number of districts has steadily increased through the ages and now stands at 62. The four races at the Federation's creation were the Gallenteans (by far the largest of the four), the Caldari, the Intakis and the Mannars. The Caldari left a few decades after the Federation's foundation and set up their own empire. The other three remain and have since been bolstered by immigrants from all the races, most notably Minmatars. People of Minmatar ancestry number almost a third of the total population of the Federation.
The core belief of the Federation is that of individuality and individual freedom. But in practice this has created a paradox as the individual freedom to do what you want constantly clashes with the individual freedom from being oppressed by other individuals. Any governmental interference to keep things in check through legislation and policing is naturally perceived as oppression of the rights and freedom of individuals, constantly creating tension. But the Federation and its populace have learned to direct and control this tension, making it in many ways a positive thing. The result is an exceedingly vibrant society, constantly scrutinizing itself and its principles, spurring creativity and ethical notions.
The Legislative Arm
The Federal Senate holds 881 members, with elections held every 5 years. The Senate is responsible for passing new laws and in supervising that the administration and the courts are behaving properly. The most important function of the Senate is in overseeing the taxation and fiscal spending by the government. In addition to the Federal Senate, each district has its own parliament (simply called district parliaments), whose official function is to advise and support the Senate on local issues, but in reality the parliaments wield a great deal of authority over the affairs of their district.
Lobbying plays a big part Gallentean politics. The lobbying factions have become an integral part of the system, affecting and even regulating everything from the elections to what bills are presented before the Senate. The other races point to the entrenched lobbyists as a clear sign of corruption and in the supposed Gallentean democracy, but the Gallenteans themselves regard the lobbyists as a robust system for keeping the Senate in touch with society, comparing their role to that of stock brokers in the trade hall.
The Executive Arm
A president heads the executive arm of the Gallente Federation. The president is elected every 5 years and the same man cannot be re-elected. The intent of this rule is to make the president and his administration focus on running the Federation rather than focus on their own popularity. Nevertheless, because the presidency is so closely linked to the lobbyism factions and thus to the Senate, the Gallente Federation is often a huge spectacle where appearance matters more than efficiency.
The Gallente president is nominally the head of state and the most powerful man in the Federation, but this is not always the case. Some presidents were puppets of political factions acting behind the scenes, but most of them have acted independently, although always within the strict framework set by the lobbyist factions.
For many the president is nothing more than the smiling face of the government; an actor playing the role of the kind, considerate and generous father of the people. This notion is supported by the trappings of the presidency, its fabulous palaces and space shuttles, purposefully aiming to awe and amaze foreign visitors and Gallenteans alike.
The Judicial Arm
The judicial system in the Gallente Federation is ever vigilant in keeping the Federation as wholesome as possible. The system is not known for being fair in their dealings with the Federation's citizens, as it almost seems like there are two different penal systems in use depending on the wealth of the accused. But even if the rich can expect some leniency in sentences imposed by the courts they don't get preferential treatment in the investigation of the crime, meaning that you are just as likely to be caught for a crime whether you're at the top or the bottom of the social ladder. And history shows that the social rejection by their peers is even more efficient in punishing the rich than a few years more or less in prison.
The highest judicial power is the Supreme Court, which consists of 13 judges, appointed for life by the president and approved by the Senate. Beneath the Supreme Court are the District Courts, one for each of the 62 districts.